GraphQl

Concept

GraphQL is a query language for APIs and a runtime for fulfilling those queries with your existing data. GraphQL provides a complete and understandable description of the data in your API, gives clients the power to ask for exactly what they need and nothing more, makes it easier to evolve APIs over time, and enables powerful developer tools.
GraphQL - Security Overview and Testing Tips · Doyensec's Blog

Common Misconfigurations

Introspection query: Simply put is a way to query the server for its GraphQL back-end schema and to get a complete documentation and list of what API calls are available in the back-end. This is originally meant to be used internally. The introspection query should only be allowed internally and should not be allowed to the general public.
Introspection Query
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{"query":"\n query IntrospectionQuery {\r\n __schema {\r\n queryType { name }\r\n mutationType { name }\r\n subscriptionType { name }\r\n types {\r\n ...FullType\r\n }\r\n directives {\r\n name\r\n description\r\n locations\r\n args {\r\n ...InputValue\r\n }\r\n }\r\n }\r\n }\r\n\r\n fragment FullType on __Type {\r\n kind\r\n name\r\n description\r\n fields(includeDeprecated: true) {\r\n name\r\n description\r\n args {\r\n ...InputValue\r\n }\r\n type {\r\n ...TypeRef\r\n }\r\n isDeprecated\r\n deprecationReason\r\n }\r\n inputFields {\r\n ...InputValue\r\n }\r\n interfaces {\r\n ...TypeRef\r\n }\r\n enumValues(includeDeprecated: true) {\r\n name\r\n description\r\n isDeprecated\r\n deprecationReason\r\n }\r\n possibleTypes {\r\n ...TypeRef\r\n }\r\n }\r\n\r\n fragment InputValue on __InputValue {\r\n name\r\n description\r\n type { ...TypeRef }\r\n defaultValue\r\n }\r\n\r\n fragment TypeRef on __Type {\r\n kind\r\n name\r\n ofType {\r\n kind\r\n name\r\n ofType {\r\n kind\r\n name\r\n ofType {\r\n kind\r\n name\r\n ofType {\r\n kind\r\n name\r\n ofType {\r\n kind\r\n name\r\n ofType {\r\n kind\r\n name\r\n ofType {\r\n kind\r\n name\r\n }\r\n }\r\n }\r\n }\r\n }\r\n }\r\n }\r\n }\r\n ","variables":null}
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We can Visualize the query results using https://apis.guru/graphql-voyager/
GraphQL abuse: Bypass account level permissions through parameter smuggling - Detectify Labs
Detectify Labs

Tools & Burp extensions

GitHub - doyensec/inql: InQL - A Burp Extension for GraphQL Security Testing
GitHub

References

GitHub - chentsulin/awesome-graphql: Awesome list of GraphQL
GitHub
Discovering GraphQL endpoints and SQLi vulnerabilities
Medium
GraphQL — Common vulnerabilities & how to exploit them
Medium
Introduction to GraphQL | GraphQL
graphql
Last modified 10mo ago